13. Solar systems  This page is not edited to perfect English (coming soon).

 

Basics

Before reading this chapter please read these two pages here  and  here.

 

A star must rotate to keep the planets in orbits.

Stars and planet rotation will gradually stop, because the rotation of astronomic bodies "pays" all the lost of KE due to resistance against motion (RAM)  both  according to orbit and rotation velocity.

11p

If the rotation energy (space wind), of a planet  (from a star) and the resistance against motion (that affects the planets) both has the same strengths, the orbits of the planet's are stable.

 

When huge planet's approaching their mother stars due to the tidal force, and due to RAM the star increases it's rotation velocity.  And this will force other planets (further out) of the solar system further away from the star.

After planets are thrown further away from the star, the star will lose KE and will again slow down it's rotation. Once again a huge (or small) planet can be dragged towards the star due to the tidal force and RAM and the process will repeat it self.

 

 

 

Solar Systems

 

Our Solar System

Star

Mass : Sun

1

Mass : Kg

2 * 1030

Circumference

4396000000

Age

4.5 Gyr

Surface Velocity

1483 m/s

Distance LY

0

Average Rotation Velocity

815 m/s

Rotation days

34.3

Resistance

3.69 * 10-12

Radius m 1R

1

Resistance * mc2 (J)

6.64 * 1035

Rotation s.

2963520

Planets

Planet

Velocity

Mass

Kinetic resistance 

* mc2 (J)

Mercury

47.890

0,33 * 1024

1.27 *  10-8 m/s2

3.77 * 1032

Venus

35.030

4,87 * 1024

6.81 *  10-9 m/s2

2.98 * 1033

Earth

29.790

5.97 * 1024

4.93 *  10-9 m/s2

2.65* 1033

Mars

24.130

0.642 * 1024

3.24 *  10-9 m/s2

1.87 * 1032

Jupiter

13.060

1900  * 1024

9.48 * 10-10 m/s2

1.62 * 1035

Saturn

9.640

569 * 1024

5.16 * 10-10 m/s2

2.64 * 1034

Uranus

6.810

86,8 * 1024

2.68 * 10-10 m/s2

2.09 * 1033

Neptune

5.430

102 * 1024

1.63 * 10-10 m/s2

1,5 *  1033

Resistance * mc2 (J)

4.78 1035

 

 

HD 164922

Star

Mass : Sun

0.94

Mass : Kg

1.88 * 1030

Circumference

3956400000 m.

Age

13.4 Gyr

Surface Velocity

780 m/s

Distance LY

 

Average Rotation Velocity

429 m/s

Rotation days

58.7 days

Resistance

1.02 * 10-12 m/s

Radius m 1R

0.90               

Resistance * mc2 (J)

1.72 * 1035

Rotation s.

5071680

Planets

b

 

 

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

1155

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

99792000

Radius (average)..(m)

3.16 * 1011

Mass (* M of Earth)

114.4188

Velocity

19.920

Orbit Resistance (m/s)

2.20 * 10-9

Resistance * mc2 (J)

1.35 * 1035  

Planet-b is probably the last planet left in this solar system HD 16922, all other are already lost.

 

 

HD 74156

Star

Mass : Sun

1.24 (E30)

Mass : Kg

2,48 * 1030

Radius m 1R

1.58

Age

7.38  Gyr

Circumference

6945680000 m

Distance LY

210.6

Surface Velocity

4026 m/s

Rotation days

19,95 days

Average Rotation Velocity

2214  m/s

Rotation km/s

4.02 km/s        

Resistance

2.73 * 10-11 m/s

Rotation s.

1723680

Resistance * mc2 (J)

6.07 * 1036

   

Planets

b

c

d

 

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

51.65

2476

336.6

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

4462560

213926400

29082240

Radius (average)..(m)

4.37 * 1010

5.76 * 1011

1.53 *  1011

Mass (* M of Earth)

597.5204

2552.1749

125.86068

Velocity

56.345

15.519

30.112

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

1.76 *-108

1.34 *-109

5.03 *-109

Resistance * mc2 

5.65* 1036

1.84* 1036

3.40* 1035

Total Resistance (J)

7.83 * 1036

The relative fast rotation of the star reveals that a planet recently have been lost.

Planets-b is the next to be sacrificed.

 

 

HD 11506

Star

Mass : Sun

1.19

Mass : Kg

2,38 * 1030

Radius m 1R

1.38

Age

5.4 (Ī 1.6) Gyr 

Circumference (m)

6066480000

Distance LY

176.0

Surface Velocity (m)

2670 m/s

Rotation days

26.3 days

Average Rotation Velocity (m)

1468  m/s

Rotation km/s

                           

Resistance

1.20 * 10-11  m/s

Rotation s.

2272320

Resistance * mc2 (J)

 2.57 * 1036

   

Planets

b

c

 

 

 

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

1270

170.46

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

109728000

14727744

Radius (average)..(m)

3.65 * 1011

9.56* 1010

Mass (* M of Earth)

1093.3352

260.6206

Velocity

20.854

40.750

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

2.41 *10-9

9.23 * 10-9

Resistance * mc2 

1.42 * 1036

1.29 * 1036

Total Resistance (J)

2.61 * 1036

The solar system HD 11506 is similar to HD 74156. Several planets have certainly already been lost.

 

 

Mu Arae (HD 160691)

Star

Mass : Sun

1.10 

Mass : (Kg)

2.2 * 1030

Radius m 1R

1.36

Age  (Gyr )

6.34

Circumference

5978560000

Rotation days

31 days

Surface Velocity

2232 m/s

Distance LY

50.6

Average Rotation Velocity (m)

1227 m/s

Rotation km/s

            

Resistance

8,37 * 10-12 

Rotation s.

2678400

Resistance * mc2 (J)

1.66 * 1036

   

Planets

b

c

d

f

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

643.25

9.6386

310.55

4205.8

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

55576800

832619.52

26831520

363381120

Radius (average)..(m)

2.25 * 1011

1.37 * 1010

1.39 * 1011

7.89 * 1011

Mass (* M of Earth)

532.68308

10.5551343

165.875477

576.54362

Velocity

25.538

103.493

32.491

13.637

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

3,63 *10-9

5.96 * 10-8

5.87 *10-9

1,03 *10-9

Resistance * mc2 

1.03 * 1036

3.38 * 1035

5.23 * 1035

3.19 * 1035

Total Resistance (J)

2.21 * 1036

The solar system HD 160691 is also similar to HD 74156 and HD 74156

 

All planet of that solar system is probably very slowly mowing towards the star; due to the tidal force and RAM. The solar system has certainly lost several planets in the past.

 

 

 

HD 102272

Star

Mass : Sun

1.9

Mass : Kg

3,8 * 1030

Radius m 1R

10.1

Distance LY

 

Circumference

44399600000

Rotation days

170 days

Surface Velocity

3022 m/s

Rotation km/s

 

Average Rotation Velocity

1667 m/s

Rotation s.

14688000

Resistance

1.54  * 10-11 

Age (Gyr )

0.70

Resistance * mc2 (J)

5.27 * 1036

 

 

Planets

b

c

 

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

127.58

520

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

11022912

44928000

Radius (average)..(m)

9.20 * 1010

2.35 * 1011

Mass (* M of Earth)

1875.197

826.358

Velocity

52.488

32.841

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

1.0 *10-8

5.99 * 10-9

Resistance * mc2 

1 * 1037

2.66 * 1036

Total Resistance (J)

1.27 * 1037

HD 102272 is rotating 1 time per 170 days. This is off course apparently not much compared to our Sun. We therefore should expect that the planets fast would approach that star and in fact already were demised. But notice that this stars has a diameter 10 times that of our Sun's. Hence matter also moves 10 times faster compared to our sun.
 
So even though the rotation is 5 times slower compared to our sun, the real (average) mass rotation of HD 102272 is really double so fast than the mass rotation from our sun.  And so is the space wind. Hence the statement mention below really doesn't sounds strange.
 

In the article here we can red, quote:
When red-giant stars expand, they tend to eat up the nearby planets, said Wolszczan.
Although the planet we discovered conceivably could be closer to the star without being harmed by it, there appears to be a zone of avoidance around such stars of about 0.6 astronomical units, which is a little more than half of the distance from the Earth to the Sun, he added.

 

 

 

WASP-18

Star

Mass : Sun

1.25

Mass : Kg

2.5 * 1030

Radius m 1R

1.216 

Distance LY

 

Circumference

4930553000

Rotation days

5.6 days

Surface Velocity

11048 m/s

Rotation km/s

 

Average Rotation Velocity

6076  m/s

Rotation s.

483840

Resistance

2.05 * 10-10 

Age

0.63 Gyr

Resistance * mc2 (J)

4.63 * 1037

   

Planets

b

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

0.94145299 

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

81216

Radius (average)..(m)

3,03 * 109

Mass -  10.3 * (1.9 * 1027)

1.95 * 1028

Velocity

234591 m/s

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

3.06 *10-7

Resistance * mc2 

5.37 * 1038

In the system WASP-18 a planet is struggling for surveying. The cause of that WASP-18b not has demised long ago, is that this planet probably have been thrown fare out in the solar system and back gain. This could had happen several times. Each time a heavy planets are lost, all other planet is thrown further out in space due to the increasing star rotation. .

 

When a solar system is born, several huge planets are demising. This speeds up the stars rotation velocity allowing many other planets to escape fare out in orbit further away. The next two solar systems show how this is possible and how it is possible for planets again to return to the star.

 

 

Formalhaut

Mass : Sun

2.1

Mass : Kg

4,2 * 1030

Radius m

1.832

Distance LY

25.0

Circumference

8053472000

Rotation

1 days

Surface Velocity

93622 m/s

Rotation km/s

93 km/s

Average Rotation Velocity

51492 m/s

Rotation s.

86021

Resistance

1.47  * 10-8 

Age

 

Resistance * mc2 (J)

5.55 * 1039

 

 

 

 

Planet:

b

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

320000

Second (1 orbit)

2.7648 * 1010

Radius (average) ..(m)

1,.76 * 1013

Orbit circumference..(m)

1.10 * 1014

Angel Velocity..(m/s)

1319444444

Mass (* M of Earth)

953.49

Velocity

3.989

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

8.84 * 10-11

Resistance * mc2 (J)

4.52 * 1034

Formalhaut rotates 1 time per day. This star has the double mass compared to our Sun. This demonstrates really perfectly the strengths of the space wind, and how important the accelerating space wind is to understand.

   

In the past we didn't expect that planets could be "created" so fare away from the star, as shown here,- today some scientist have accepted this, even though its sounds unacceptable.

 

Now we have very good reasons to know what is going on, -itís just to accept the force of space wind and try to understand it mathematical .

 

We even should expect to find more planets even further away than Formalhaut-b (in the same solar system).

 

 

HR 8799

Mass : Sun

1,47

Mass : Kg

2.94 * 1030

Radius m

1.34

Distance LY

129

Circumference

5890640000

Rotation days

1.8 days

Surface Velocity

37877 m

Rotation km/s

37.5 km/s.

Average Rotation Velocity

20832 m

Rotation s.

155520 s.

Resistance

2.41  * 10-9 

Age

 0.06 Gyr

Resistance * mc2 (J)

6.37 * 1038

 

 

Planets

HR 8799 b

HR 8799 c

HR 8799 d

Days (1 orbit) ..(days)

170000

69000

36500

Second (1 orbit)..(m)

1.4688 * 1010

5.9616 * 109

3.1536 * 109

Radius (average)..(m)

1.03 * 1013

5.61 * 1012

3.67 * 1012

Orbit circumference

6.47 * 1013

3.52 * 1013

2.30 * 1013

Angel Velocity..(m/s)

416023662

226337448

147890946

Mass (* Mass of Earth)

2224.81

3178.3

3178.3

Velocity

4.363

5.912

7.309

Space Wind

1.77 * 10-9 m/s2

3,24 * 10-9 m/s2

4,95 * 10-9 m/s2

Orbit Resistance  (m/s)

1.05 * 10-10

1.94 * 10-10

2.96 * 10-10

Resistance * mc2 

 1.25 * 1035

 3.31 * 1035

5.05 * 1035

Total Resistance (J)

 9.61 * 1035

HR 8799 shows the same pattern as Formalhaut.

Planets are thrown out in space, due to space wind from a fast rotating star. 

 

 

 

Our  Solar System

 

The rotation of our Sun hasn't always been so stable. Our sun has most likely also had huge planets in orbit, so like we see many others solar system have. Huge planets does relative fast cause a star to lose rotation speed, because it is the star that transfer KE (SpaceWind) to  planets so that these can overcome the resistance against motion (RAM)

 

Imaging that our sun for million or billion years ago also at least had one huge planet in orbit. Lets call it Titanic.

 

Titanic, the nearest planet to the Sun was dragged towards the Suns due to the tidal force and RAM, Titanic was the main cause to that the Sun lose much of its rotation speed, thereby Titanic was digging its own grave.

 

This could really very well had happen, and it seems that it had, because why should our Sun in the past not also had had huge planet's in orbit. (?)

 

Even though Titanic didn't surveyed, some of its moons certainly most have done so. Several of these moons werenít trapped by the strong tidal effect, they were to small and were instead forced into larger and larger elliptical strange orbits.  Many moons must have smash into Titanic but some must have surveyed.

 

Titanic demise caused the suns rotation to increase again; hence some moons could escape far out in space due to the support from the increasing stronger space wind

 

But Titanic was doomed due to the strong tidal force.

 

Titanic's outer rubble was the first objects to escape from the planet. This is today known as the asteroid belts. The next object that escaped was the moon: Mars, - and next was the moon: Earth, then the moon: Venus, and last the moon; Mercury.  So we actually very well could live on a old moon, once orbiting Titanic. 

 

This must had happen to Titanic's moon, simply because of when approaching the Sun,  the orbit of Titanic's moon must have been dragged larger and larger by the gravity of the Sun,  until these moons have been escape the gravity of Titanic, and begun to orbit the Sun instead. 

 

If the planet Titanic ever existed, yes we certainly live on one of its surveyed moon. No doubt about it.

This part of the theory can solve several mysteries.

The moons of Titanic's (e.g. Earth) could have brought the water here.

We know Jupiter's atmosphere must have come from a much cooler place her.

Titanic (and maybe other planet that now all had demised) could certainly have dragged Jupiter (and other outer planets) much closer to the Sun.  Simply because when huge planets is lost the Sun's rotation will first decrease, and this bring planets closer to the Sun.

 
 

We have found gas-planet's too close to stars. These shouldn't could exist so close to  stars because when the stars were ignited the gas-atmosphere should "should" had blow away. This theory shows that that planets have approaching the Sun after the star was ignited..

 
 

We have found planets more than 15 billion kilometre away from the mother star. These can according to our models not have been created so fare away from the stars. - And they have not been created at this distance, - because the spacewind have brought them so fare away.

 

 

We donít know why most of the matter is moving towards the centre of a proto-planetary disc.  Which force drives the matter inwards?

The answer is; simply because of the rotation of the system of a proto planetary disc in the beginning was too slow and hence the resistance against motion (RAM)  relative stronger.

 
 

Titanic had  once brought Mercury dangerous close to the Sun.  At that time the size of Mercury was much larger than now. Mercury was really struggling very hard for its life. The suns gravity ribbed away the surface of Mercury. This explain why the density of Mercury is 35 % larger than the density of Mars. Hence the inner core of Mercury is relative bigger than the inner core of Mars.

 
 

 

  
To fully understand this parts, it's recommended to read all the links below, in the order these are represented.
  1

How to calculate the equalizing forces here

  2

How much the space wind affects satellites here

  3

How much the space wind affects space probes here

  4

How much the space wind affects moons  here

5

How much the space wind affects other solar systems. here

  6

How much the space wind affects Mercury's Orbit Anomaly. here

 
 

Data are extracted from http://exoplanet.eu and from http://en.wikipedia.org

Extracted data from all the stars that rotate and also have planets in orbit is collected here

None exclusion have been done.

 

www.science27.com