The Cause of the Earth's Magnetic Field

The prevailing theory of the cause of the Earth's Magnetic Field

has major problems explaining:

 

 

  • Fluctuations (instability) of the strength of the Earth's magnetic field.

  • The South Atlantic Anomaly.

  • Many of the crust anomalies (for instance the African crust anomaly).

  • The reversal of the Magnetic Poles every 200,000 years.

  • The coinciding periods (of thousands of years) of correlation between the Earth’s global temperature and the strength of the Earth’s global magnetic field .

  • The periodical decreasing of the Earth's magnetic field to only a few percent of its average strength.

  • The correlation between Magnetic Anomalies & Thermal Activities.

  • The periodic emergence of 2 (or possibly 4) different Magnetic South and North poles.

 

 All these mysteries cannot be explained with the old
 "Inner Dynamo" theory.

 

Watch a introduction Video HERE

 

 
 

 A new theory can easily explain all these Mysteries.

 
 1.Introduction

 

The commonly accepted "Inner Dynamo" theory cannot explain the majority of the Earth's magnetic anomalies (for example, why the Earth's magnetic field is periodically reversing its poles or why it operates sometimes at a fraction of its average strength).

The magnetic field (MF) produced by such an "inner dynamo" mechanism should be as stable as the stable spin of the Earth.  
These magnetic anomalies are so strange that they could only be compared to the Earth reversing its spin, or reducing its rotational speed (so that a 24 hour day becomes a 1,000 hour day.)

 

However, all these mysterious magnetic phenomena can be easily explained in the light of a new and long-awaited theory of the cause of the Earth’s magnetic field (MF).  This new theory also provides unique predictions regarding what will happen to the MF of the Earth within the next couple of years. It will become clear that the MF of the Earth is solely generated in the Earth’s crust.
 
Until now, the following points have been underestimated or not fully understood:

  • The magnetic material in the Earth’s crust is enough to create a global MF.

  • The importance of the 'frozen' and 'non-frozen' magnetic structures in the Earth’s crust.

  • The primary power behind magnetic integration (thereby strengthening or weakening the global MF).

 2. The magnetic basic state of the Earth

 
Today it is known that the MF of the Earth goes through periods that
are dominated by "magnetic chaos".
 
During these periods:
 

  • 2 to 4 Magnetic North and South poles exist.

  • The magnetic strength of the global field is be reduced to maximum of 10% of the normal strength.

  • Magnetic alliances interact with each other whereby they can either get strengthened or weakened.

 

From a scientific perspective, no one has realised that it is within this “magnetic chaos” where we find the key to understanding all of the mysterious anomalies of the Earth’s MF.
 
It is important to understand that this chaotic magnetic state
is, in reality, the basic state of the Earth’s MF.
 
It is well known that during periods of this "magnetic chaos" the strength of the global MF is only (maximum) 10% of the normal (average) strength.

 

The remaining 90 % of the maximum strength is created when the fragmented magnetic alliances (in the basic state) gather to form a global MF. The new theory calls this phenomenon ”magnetic integration.

 
 3. The old theory doesn't make sense.

 

The "basic magnetic state" is a very strange phenomenon but only hard to explain when the global MF is considered to be the result of an electromagnetic circuit powered by an inner dynamo.

 
Periods of a weak and chaotic MF are always followed by periods when, once again, a global MF is created. What we see is really nothing more than the simple ferromagnetic (continental) alliances which eventually integrate into a global MF again. There is simply no use at all for an inner dynamo theory. All we need is to understand how chaotic and disrupted MFs re-integrate into a global MF and how this field turns back to a period of weakness and disruption.

 

An electromagnetic circuit that periodically splits up into several electromagnetic circuits and then ends up as one circuit once again might be considered, at first, as a possible explanation, but in the long run such an explanation simply does not make any sense at all. Time will soon show that it was accepted only because there was no alternative explanation of this strange behaviour of the Earth’s MF.

 

 4. Magnetic Integration & Disintegration

 

It is a well known fact that the MF of the Earth has integrating and self-perpetuating properties.
For instance
, an iron bar placed
vertically on the northern hemisphere would immediately create a magnetic north at the top of the bar. As a result, such a bar (to a small degree) would become integrated into the global MF of the Earth and contribute to its total strength. On the other hand any ”frozen magnetic structures” of the iron bar would point in random directions and causing both interrupting and weakening effects.

 
The new theory is based on the assumption that the integrating and self-perpetuating qualities of the MF are the primary cause of the global properties of the Earth's MF (and its strange behavior).
In the beginning,
relatively small and strong magnetic areas in the crust, in a self-perpetuating process, became bigger and combined their strength to become the MFs of whole continents and eventually united into the global MF of the planet.

 
Places deep in the Earth’s crust (where the temperature is higher than on the surface, but still below the Curie point) provide optimal conditions for the process of magnetic integration. The magnetic resistance is lower in these warmer areas and the amount of disruptive, 'frozen' magnetic structures is significantly reduced.

 

Even though some of the magnetic strength is lost there due to heating up the magnetic material, the overall result is a substantial gain in the magnetic strength because the magnetic flexibility of the material below Curie point which after alignment with the global field, contributes greatly to its overall value (and easily compensates for what is lost by the influence of heat (above Curie temperature).
 
Another point is that the Earth’s over land is many times thicker than over the oceans. As a result, the magnetic integration and strength of the MF should be stronger over the two northern continents.
 In contrast, the southern hemisphere does not have such large land masses and therefore contributes much less to the global field. The magnetic strength in the southern hemisphere can then (to a certain degree) be seen as a result of the strong magnetic poles of the northern hemisphere.

 

This theory also implies that global magnetic integration and disintegration has different periods. Later on, this article will explain this further.  Each continent will during these periods have its own MF and thus also its own magnetic north and south pole.

 

Even our modern magnetic maps show that the 2 great northern continents have 2 strong magnetic areas: one over northern Siberia and the other over North America.

 

The new theory implies that during the last phase of periods characterized by the basic magnetic state, magnetic integration between the two northern continents takes place.

 

During periods when continental MF strength is great, a strong integrated global crust field is easily stretched to the area of the geographical south pole. This dominating northern magnetic influence on the southern hemisphere results in the creation of a common global Magnetic South Pole (MSP) on the southern hemisphere.

 

The opposite happens during periods of serious weakening of the continental magnetic strength which brings disintegration of the global MF of the Earth. The result is a reduction of the range of continental magnetic influence to the point when eventually they are not able to maintain the necessary magnetic strength it takes to have MSP positioned far away from the borders of the continents.

 

During such periods, both continents will show increasing signs of magnetic disruption and it will be harder and harder for them to share 1 common magnetic south pole. As a result, the Eurasian MF will draw back its share of the magnetic south pole in the direction of its own continental magnetic north pole and the same thing will occur to the combined field of the North and South American continents.

 

 

Continued global disintegration (that started 3000 years ago) will gradually weaken the earths magnetic extend. 

 

The main reason for this is magnetic entanglement. North Canada has been most affected, and therefore the combined North and South American MF is weakening dramatically

 
 The magnetic weakness we now see in the Atlantic Ocean (called "The South Atlantic anomaly") is in reality the first serious sign of a period when the global MF has begun the process of a separation into two or several parts. It seems that the period of the basic magnetic state has already started.

Our scientific community believes that the global weakening of the MF will continue and that a magnetic poles reversal is about to happen.

 

 

In the light of the new theory, this is an incorrect prediction

 

The opposite is about to happen: two large independent continental MFs will integrate into one global and strong MF (the Global magnetic integration).

 

 

 

5. The Big Question  

What is responsible for this global magnetic integration or disintegration that the MF of the Earth periodically goes through?
 

First of all, the final global integration of the MFs of two northern continents must occur in a very strategic area (at the "weakest" points). Seen from the northern hemisphere perspective, the Arctic Ocean is an area of special strategic interest.

In the Arctic Ocean we find one of the biggest and strongest magnetic anomalies on Earth, therefore, this strong magnetic area is the most obvious area to bring to our attention.

 

It is reasonable to accept that this area is the natural place where two big continental ferroMFs are gathered into one global field.

 
It's especially important to understand that the thermal heat that we find in the ar
ctic ocean zone can certainly cause frozen magnetic structures in that area to loosen up and by making magnetic "power lines" much more flexible, allow a huge amount of magnetic structures to change and align in new directions (dictated by the global MF).

 

As soon as the Magnetic North Pole (MNP) arrives at a huge thermal area, it makes it much easier for a huge amount of magnetic "power lines" to align with with the rest of the crust. That certainly reinforces the global magnetic strength.

 

The heat of the Arctic Ocean causes magnetic structures in this area to be less ”frozen” (compared to colder underground places) and more magnetically flexible.  As a result, such an area can adapt more easily to prevailing magnetic direction.

 

It is very important to notice that when the MNP enters (and moves through) such a warm area, the strength of the global MF is bound to increase.

 

Because the strong MNP is able to free and "re-align" more and more frozen magnetic structures in its way, the global MF (and thereby the MNP) increases its strength year after year. This almost never ending, self-perpetuating process takes place in the 'wake' of the traveling MNP (but only so long the MNP is inside the borders of the thermally heated area). We can say that when the MNP is inside the thermally heated area, it is "tiding up" the magnetic chaos.

 

It is therefore especially important that MNP (or both) of the magnetic poles are situated above a warm thermal area, which has not been the case of the Earth’s Magnetic North Pole in the past (for several periods).

 

Paleo magnetic data seems to confirm that the MNP is (periodically in the past) situated over the  great magnetic anomaly in the Arctic Ocean where strong thermal activity is going on to a depth of up to 5,000 meters. This means that the MF of the Earth is in a period of integration.

 

This apparent ”triviality” is decisive in regards to whether or not our two big continents (over long periods) are able to magnetically integrate with each other (and therefore grow in magnetic strength).

 

 
 

 

PREDICTIONS

 

The MNP is right now arriving at the great magnetic anomaly of the Arctic Ocean (look at the image above the "cross").

This will certainly start a period of magnetic integration very soon, which means that the Earth's global MF will again begin to increase (a 3000 year period of a decrease in global strength is now over).

It is expected that the speed the MNP is moving at will be reduced within the next few years down to 75% of its current velocity.
 

Furthermore, it is expected that the MNP will stay within the borders of the great magnetic anomaly of the Arctic Ocean for at least 1000 years (this estimate is also supported by the paleo magnetic data).
 

It is also expected that the next solar storm will further increase the Earth’s MF and that this field will retain the greater part of this newly increased strength.

 

 

Notice the green 'number 8' in the image to the right. This roughly illustrates the 'path' the magnetic North pole has been travelling over the past 3,000 years

 

While the MNP travels through the cold underground (and areas with bad ferromagnetic content / conductivity) it has a decreasing effect on the global MF. The MNP movement around such magnetic areas 'pulls' magnetic power lines in its 'wake'. Many of these new directions of the magnetic power lines freeze in different directions. After hundreds of years these magnetic power lines no longer point exactly to the MNP but, over time, point in the direction to where MNP once was. As a result the MNP movement in cold areas contributes to a disrupted and decreasing global MF in its 'wake'. This is exactly what has been happening during the last 3,000 years, and that is why the global MF has been decreasing so much though time.

 

The faster the  MNP is moving around in cool areas, the more it disrupts the MF of these areas which it turn diminishes the global MF.  During such periods the MNP is entangling many of the Earth's magnetic power lines by pointing them into increasingly chaotic magnetic directions. This of course is noticeably weakening the global MF.
The conclusion is simple
: the faster and wider the MNP travels over "cool" areas of the crust, the faster and wider it entangles the magnetic lines in its way causing reduction of the strength of the global MF.

Paleo magnetic data shows that as long as the global MF of the Earth is weak, the MNP is being kept in this area (currently in the Arctic Ocean area). The thermal area of the Arctic Ocean has therefore both integrating and balancing effects during periods with weak global MF of the Earth. We can say that the Arctic Ocean, during "weak" magnetic periods, keeps the MNP steady and gives the global MF a 'ground connection'.

 
It has to be noted that during periods of magnetic integration it is not sufficient that
the MNP or the magnetic South Pole (MSP) are situated over big thermal magnetic anomalies. That is just a prerequisite condition required for strengthening the field. 

 

It is known that the Earth's MF is ”raised” with the contribution of sun storms. The MNP (and SMP) favourable placement means that the Earth's MF can more easily maintain these regularly received solar "magnetic contributions" and that this has a self-perpetuating effect.

 

It is important to monitor the growing strength of the MF of the Earth during and after the next sun storm to see how much of this magnetic contribution is absorbed.

 

Whether the Earth's magnetic strength is increasing or decreasing also depends on the Earth's magnetic susceptibility at different periods which in turn depends on (as we mentioned earlier)  the favourable placement of the MNP (and MSP).

 

As already mentioned, some magnetic contributions to Earth's MF come from the Sun (from its highly active and quiet periods).

 

It is expected that the long term magnetic susceptibility is much greater during periods when the global field is increasing its magnetic strengths than during periods when the global magnetic strength is decreasing. However it has not been possible to observe such long term effects because the Earth's magnetic strengths have been decreasing for the last 3,000 years.

 

Because this very long period of decrease in global magnetic strength is now (very soon) finished, it will be possible to see how much the Earth's (new) magnetic susceptibility will be affected by the MNP favourable placement.

 

When local MFs of countries and continents (during periods of integration) to a greater extend integrate with the global MF, then of course a significant strengthening of the global MF will take place.

A significant strengthening of the global MF will take place while local (continental) MFs integrate during these periods.

 
This is why
during the strong periods of integration magnetic strength is up to 15 times greater than during the periods characterized by the 'basic' magnetic state.

 
Therefore it is fairly
natural to assume that the greater part of the Earth's magnetic strength is caused by the magnetic integration occuring at any given time.

 

 

 6. The Cause of the Disintegration of the Magnetic Field

 

 

The cause of the disintegration of the global MF of the Earth is the MNP moving away from the magnetic anomaly of the Arctic Ocean towards areas that can be characterized by cold (frozen) magnetic structures. But it is also important how strong the intensity of the solar wind is.
 

When the global MF of the Earth once again gains great magnetic strength, the point of global magnetic balance will no longer be maintained (maybe because one of the two continents becomes magnetically stronger than the other, causing the MNP to start moving away from the thermal area of the Arctic Ocean, or because the Arctic Ocean will no longer be able to dominate once the power of the continental field is increased). When the MNP moves out of the thermal area, (or a magnetic strong or neutral area)  a period characterized by magnetic disintegration will start.

 

 7. Continental Magnetic Anomalies

   

The strength and size of the continental magnetic anomalies should be seen as the result of the amount of materials that can be magnetized in the continental mass and the thermal heat in the crust of the Earth.

This is related to the fact that the warmer magnetic material of the crust (closer to the Curie temperature) can be more easily  magnetized and by ’freeing up’ frozen and disturbing magnetic structures, it can contribute to and reinforce the common MF.

 

A thermal area in the crust of the Earth can more easily adjust itself to changing directions of the MF (as long as it does not get too close to the Curie temperature). A strong magnetic anomaly can be created by a higher degree of movement of heat in the underground area of the crust or it can be caused by large content of magnetic material in the underground.
 
Most of the positive continental magnetic anomalies are either positioned in thermal areas or in great continental hollows where it is known that the thermal heat run-through is greater than in areas that are positioned at relatively higher altitudes.
In this context, the African magnetic anomaly is no longer a mystery and it has not been created by a meteor (as suggested by the theory of Danish space researches).

 

 

  8. The Nature of the Earth’s Basic Magnetic State

 

It is now known that ”the basic magnetic state” has magnetic strength that is only 10% of the normal strength of the MF of the Earth which is around 6.000 nT (nT [nanotesla] is unit of magnetic flux density)

 

The question is whether the magnetic alliances that characterize the magnetic basic state can be divided even further to create smaller magnetic alliances. There is no doubt that further magnetic fragmentation (in periods of the basic magnetic state) will cause the MFs of the Earth to become even weaker. It is therefore important to know what the magnetic strength of the Earth will be when all of the magnetic integration is gone. We can easily imagine that further magnetic fragmentation (in the periods of basic state) will cause the local magnetic strength to decrease further, down to values we can currently observe on Mars (where the local remnants of the global MF show magnetic density of only 1,500 nT).
 

One can therefore conclude that all that is needed to generate the global MF on Earth is for magnetic areas in the crust strong enough to integrate at first in (small) local areas of the Earth. (Which in itself should be sufficient to start the process of integration that eventually will lead to a complete global integration of the MF.) The new theory explains that the secret behind the MF of the Earth is the magnetic integration powered by contribution from the solar wind. (which eliminates the need for an inner electromagnetic dynamo mechanism).

 

It therefore seems therefore evident that the magnetic field of Mars (which quite likely used to have approximately the same strength as the MF of Earth) did not disappear because the inner core of Mars became cold, but because Mars lost its thermal heat in the crust which caused the magnetic structures to freeze in chaotic directions as the crust of the planet was cooling off.
With that, Mars lost its chance to start a new powerful process of magnetic integration. What is seen on Mars is that there are still some magnetic alliances, but these are very small and are probably completely 'frozen' and unable to, even locally, to gain any significant size and strength.

 

There is no evidence that supports the claim that the inner fluid core of Mars is frozen (which is unlikely but proposed by the 'old' dynamo theory).

  

 

 9. Climate and Ice Ages

At times there also seems to be a coincidence between almost parallel curves between the climatic temperatures of the Earth on the one side, - and the global strength of the MF of Earth on the other side.
This could indicate that the thermal loss of heat in the underground of the Arctic Ocean can vary, which is important in relation to the periodical amount of frozen magnetic structures.

It is now easy to imagine, that in periods when thermal heat in the Artic Ocean disappears , then these cold periods will have a influence on the Earth ability to create global magnetic integration.

Another argument that supports this new theory of the MF of the Earth comes from clear correlation between nearly parallel curves representing the climatic temperatures of the Earth and the global strength of the MF of Earth (over a long period of time).
This could maybe indicates that the thermal loss of heat in the underground areas of the Arctic Ocean can vary which periodically affects the amount of frozen magnetic structures.

 

After the last Ice Age our planet took over 4,000 years to reach the climatic temperature we have today. Periods with greater thermal heat, or a more widely distributed area, especially in the Arctic Ocean, could maybe have a weak effect of diminishing the ability of the Arctic Ocean to participate in the process of cooling down the warm water masses of the Gulf Stream.
 
We have no reason to believe that the the contribution from thermal heat is stabile, but of course it can probaly not explain the main reason for the great temperatures we have on earth. More likely that solar wind is the key.

 

10. The coinciding periods of correlation between the Earth’s global temperature and the strength of the Earth’s global  magnetic field

It is obvious that the long term variation between the temperature and Earth’s MF is coincident. We have known this for a long time but haven’t been able to figure out what caused this correlation.

 

We have seen above how the intensity of the solar wind must be suspected for being the real magnetic "dynamo" of Earth’s MF.

 

However, we have not fully understood the coinciding periods of correlation between Earth’s global temperature and the strength of Earth’s global MF.

 

According to the Danish physicist Henrik Svensmark  (Danish National Space Center) the variation of Earth's temperature is (in brief)  caused by the intensity  of the solar wind.

 

For the first time in history, we therefore have a serious common denominator that can explain both the variation of Earth’s temperature as well as the cause of the (real) dynamo of Earth’s MF.

The red line in the graph to the right shows that temperatures have a long-term parallel coincidence with Earth’s MF.

 

The red curve is quite "heavy", the cause of this is due to inner heat variation of the Earth, and is causing different periods of magnetic susceptibility.

Read the chapter; Sub subduction at www.science27.com 

The shorter and faster variation is due to the Sun's different periods ( Read Henrik Svensmark's theory) .

 

 11. The Long Term Movement of the Poles

 

 

Currently the MNP is situated deep inside of northern Canada. The reason for that could be that the Eurasian field now is magnetically stronger than the MF of the two combined American continents and thereby it is able to 'push' the MNP further away from the Eurasian continental border.

 

Since 1831 we have seen that the MNP has begun to move towards Eurasia. This shows that in the last 150 years the Eurasian field could has been losing strength faster than the combined (North and South) American MF.  Even though both continents have lost magnetic strength in this period, Eurasia has lost more magnetic strength during this decades than the two American continents (combined).

 

The movement, speed and placement of the magnetic poles should perhaps be seen as an expression of the interaction of the two (or several) magnetic continents (alliances).  
 
The direction and speed of the MNP during periods of disintegration can generally be seen as an indicator of what part of the Earth is losing most of its magnetic strength and how quickly it happens.

 

During global integration periods the movement of the poles would help to deduct which part of the MF of the Earth was being strengthened more than the other.

 

Based on where the MNP (and SMP) is located, in which direction it travels and how fast it travels, a relative  proportional strength between the two northern continents can be read (but this would not be an indication of the strengths of the total global changes of the MF). The present dislocation of the field also result to local weak integrating and increasing effect as seen in the Indian ocean. This could be due to old local magnetic paths again become united..

 

At this time, the Earth is on its way into a short transitional period, where the global field is on its way to stabilizing and will very soon increase in its global strength. During this period, (right now) it will be difficult to exactly discriminate between the cause and effect.

 

 

 

  12. The Daily Movement of the poles.

The image to the right shows that the MNP is moving during some parts of the day in the direction opposite (South) to its general path direction (North).  This southern course culminates ”at Noon” when the sun is at its highest point in the sky over the American continent.

On the side of the Earth that is exposed to the sun, it is known that strengthening is created in the Earth’s MF at the equator (Solar Quiet). The image also shows that the influence is stronger over land (America and Eurasia) compared to over water (the pull on the MNP is stronger over land).

 

  13. The Reversal of the Magnetic Field (the magnetic pole reversal)

Why does the MF of the Earth reverse during 200,000 years periods characterized by the basic magnetic state?  The new theory presented here suggests that the thermal area in the Arctic Ocean during the Ice Ages, more or less disappears, causing these areas to freeze magnetically.

    

This results in a situation where the Arctic Ocean area during this very cold period loses its ability to magnetically integrate with the global MF.  The global MF can no longer stay as one and it splits into two huge parts (and later, possibly into 4 parts); magnetic chaos begins to rule, magnetic alliances start fighting each other and repeated magnetic pole reversals can easily take place.

 
Everything points in one direction
: areas containing thermal heat have a major role in shaping the MF of our planet (because these areas hold very great integrating forces on the local level and especially in relation to the global field).

But the the reversal could perhaps also be caused by magnetic reversal of the suns MF.

Furthermore we today know that the Suns MF also reverses. So far we have seen this happens every eleventh year.  Right now the polarity of the Suns MF supports the the Earth MF. But this will change next time (2012) when the Sun's MF again flips, and this in fact can weakening the Sun's MF.

We also know that the Sun's MF right now is weak. There are not so many sunspots as expected. This could show that the Sun's MF is serious weakened, and could probably continue to be so for a long term period.  This could also prolong the period for the magnetic polarity flip of the Sun. In period where the Earth MF is weak, the polarity of the Sun's MF can also be a important factor, - especially when the Sun polarity flip happens much slower than now, for example if these in weak magnetic period takes for example hundred or thousand of years.

http://www.videnskab.dk/composite-2572.htm?utm_medium=nyhedsbrev

 

 14. Conclusions.

 

In conclusion, there is no need for an electromagnetic inner dynamo theory to explain;

  • the periods of basic magnetic state

  • the integration process

  • the magnetic pole reversal

  • the magnetic anomalies

  • the movement of the magnetic poles

  • anything else...

We are dealing with an automatic and completely natural ferromagnetic process in the Earth's crust powered by the solar wind (and nothing more than that).

 

 

You are welcome to contact the author bjarne.lorenzen@mail.dk

 

Copyright © 2004 - 2005 Bjarne Lorenzen